When we think of Vietnamese cuisine, we often associate it with fresh herbs, rice noodles, and savory broths. However, what many people don’t realize is that French cuisine has played a significant role in shaping Vietnamese gastronomy. In this article, we’ll explore the history of French culinary influence in Vietnam and the key figures who brought French cuisine to the country.
Early Influences of French Cuisine in Vietnam
French influence on Vietnamese cuisine can be traced back to the early 17th century when French Catholic missionaries arrived in the country. These missionaries introduced European ingredients like dairy products and wheat flour, which were not traditionally used in Vietnamese food. They also brought with them French baking techniques, which led to the creation of Vietnamese baguettes, known as bánh mì.
Another early influence of French cuisine in Vietnam was the French expat community. French traders and merchants started settling in Vietnam in the 19th century, bringing with them French ingredients and culinary techniques. They opened French-style cafes and restaurants in the major cities, catering to both the French expat community and wealthy Vietnamese locals.
These early influences laid the foundation for the French culinary revolution that took place during the colonial period, which we’ll explore in the next section.
French Cuisine During Colonial Period
The arrival of French colonizers in Vietnam in the late 19th century had a profound impact on Vietnamese cuisine. French colonizers introduced a wide variety of French ingredients and culinary techniques to Vietnam, which led to the creation of new dishes and the adaptation of existing ones.
French colonizers established French restaurants and cafes in major cities like Hanoi and Saigon. These establishments catered to both the French expat community and wealthy Vietnamese locals. The French introduced European-style fine dining to Vietnam, with elaborate multi-course meals and formal service.
In addition to introducing French cuisine to Vietnam, the French colonizers also played a role in shaping Vietnamese culinary traditions. For example, the French introduced the concept of a single, communal meal served in the evening, which replaced the traditional Vietnamese eating pattern of multiple small meals throughout the day.
Vietnamese Adaptation of French Cuisine
One of the most significant developments in Vietnamese cuisine during the colonial period was the fusion of French and Vietnamese flavors. Vietnamese chefs began incorporating French ingredients like butter, cream, and cheese into traditional Vietnamese dishes, creating a unique fusion of flavors.
One example of this fusion is the dish bánh xèo, a Vietnamese crepe filled with pork, shrimp, bean sprouts, and herbs. The French influence can be seen in the use of wheat flour in the batter and the addition of coconut milk, which gives the crepe a rich, creamy texture.
Another example of Vietnamese-French fusion is the dish phở cuốn, which consists of phở noodles wrapped around beef, herbs, and lettuce. The dish is reminiscent of a French-style summer roll, but with the addition of phở noodles and Vietnamese herbs.
In addition to the fusion of flavors, Vietnamese chefs also created new dishes that combined French and Vietnamese culinary traditions. One example is bánh mì, a Vietnamese sandwich made with French baguettes and filled with Vietnamese ingredients like pickled vegetables, cilantro, and grilled pork.
The fusion of French and Vietnamese flavors and the creation of Vietnamese-French dishes have become an integral part of Vietnamese cuisine, showcasing the country’s rich culinary history and cultural diversity.
Prominent Figures Who Brought French Cuisine to Vietnam
One of the most notable French chefs who brought French cuisine to Vietnam was Paul Bertolli, who worked at the Metropole Hotel in Hanoi in the early 1900s. He introduced classic French dishes like beef bourguignon and coq au vin to the Vietnamese elite and also adapted French techniques to create fusion dishes like phở á la française, which is a French version of the traditional Vietnamese noodle soup.
On the Vietnamese side, chefs like Nguyen Dzoan Cam Van, who trained at Le Cordon Bleu in Paris, brought back French culinary techniques to Vietnam and incorporated them into traditional Vietnamese dishes. She opened her own restaurant in Ho Chi Minh City, called Camargue, which serves French-inspired Vietnamese cuisine using locally-sourced ingredients.
Legacy of French Cuisine in Vietnam
Today, French cuisine continues to be a prominent influence in Vietnamese gastronomy. French techniques like baking, sauce-making, and wine pairing have become integral parts of Vietnamese culinary tradition. French-inspired dishes like bánh mì and bò kho (a beef stew) have become staples in Vietnamese cuisine, and French-style cafes and restaurants can be found in cities all over Vietnam.
The impact of French cuisine on Vietnamese culinary tradition has also been felt in the international food scene. Vietnamese-French fusion cuisine has become popular in Western countries, with dishes like phở soufflé and bánh mì burgers appearing on menus in cities like New York and London.
In conclusion, French cuisine has played a significant role in shaping Vietnamese culinary tradition. From early influences by French missionaries and expats to prominent chefs who brought French techniques to Vietnam, the legacy of French cuisine can still be seen in Vietnamese food today. As Vietnam continues to develop and modernize, its culinary scene will undoubtedly continue to evolve, but the influence of French cuisine will always be a part of its rich culinary heritage.